I was now face to face with the castle moat, which was, indeed, very wide and very deep. Alas! I could not swim, and my chance of escape seemed of a truth hopeless, as, doubtless, it would have been had I not espied a boat tied to the wall by a r... Read more of Crossing The Moat at Math Puzzle.caInformational Site Network Informational
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Line Effect

This can be produced in crayon portraits made over a photographic
enlargement, or in free-hand crayons after the filling in just
described has been done. The lines are drawn to cross one another so as
to leave diamond shaped spaces. One of the important things in this
style of finishing is the line of direction, by which is meant the
lines or grains that represent the object to be drawn. We say that wood
is cross-grained, meaning that the grains or fibers of the wood run
crosswise. If we were to represent a straight board in crayon drawing,
we would draw straight lines running lengthwise of the board, unless it
should have some cross-grained places in it, as that is the way the
grain of the board would be. If we should take the same board and bend
it in the form of a circle, we would in order to represent the board in
that position, draw lines running in a circle to correspond with the
grain and position of the board. The idea to be impressed is, that when
we want to represent an object with crayon and that object is flat, we
draw straight lines to represent its surface; and when the object is
round or partly so, we draw curved lines, conforming them to the
surface of the object. Light and shade in nature have each their
different qualities. Light expresses form while shade obscures it;
consequently, in the light places of an object we will see its grain or
texture, and that grain or texture will gradually become obscured as it
enters the shadow until it is entirely lost in the deepest shadows.
This grain will not show in nature as decided where the strongest
lights are as it will in the half shadows; and, therefore, in the
crayon representation the grain effect should show more decided in the
half shadows. If your crayon is not true in this respect, it will
appear coarse and fail to please as a work of art on account of its
falsity to nature. The line effect is produced throughout the whole
picture, in the background, face and dress.

Next: Stipple Effect

Previous: Filling In The Free-hand Crayon

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