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Stipple Effect

On a photographic enlargement or a free-hand crayon after
the outline and masses of light and shade have been made
with the tortillon stump, as explained on page 55.

When putting in a background with the pumice stone as described in the
fourth method on page 70, treat the whole surface of the paper with
pumice stone in order to raise the grain of the paper, but go over the
face lightly. Then place the strainer on which the portrait is mounted
on the easel, and put in the shadows with the tortillon stump,
producing the lights with the eraser; finish with the No. 0 crayon. But
instead of producing a diamond effect, as you did with the lines, you
now want to have a stipple effect, which is that of small black and
white spots; the paper producing the white spots, and the crayon the
black ones. To produce this make the lines in the shadows and
half-shadows, but not in the light places, in the manner shown in the
illustration on the following page; instead of crossing them to form
diamonds, using short lines and varying their direction and
intersection with reference to the ultimate effect; then rub them with
the end of the finger. In finishing, gradually divide up all the small
light parts with the pencil and the dark with the eraser: if it is
necessary at any time to rub the crayon, use the end of the finger
instead of the cotton. Be careful not to get too much crayon on the
paper, that is, you must not "force up" or be compelled to make the
shadows too dark by the use of the crayon; they should be made as dark
as necessary with the stump before finishing. Should you find in
finishing that they are not dark enough, use the stump to make them
darker, as the pencil is only intended to give the stipple effect, and
should be used in a very light and delicate way. Continue the process
of finishing according to the directions hereafter given for bromide
enlargements. The foregoing illustration is the first or ground work
for the stipple effect produced by the aid of the fingers. To obtain
this effect without rubbing with the fingers, make small black dots,
instead of the lines shown above, until the desired effect is produced.
The latter method results in a coarser stipple effect, but it requires
a much longer time and is more difficult than the former.

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