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The Pantograph

This instrument for enlarging or reducing a picture was invented about
the year 1603. It consists of four metallic or wooden bars or rules,
which are perforated by a series of holes (numbered from 1 to 20), and
connected together by means of an adjustable thumb screw. The
instrument is provided with a tracing and a marking point, and a screw
or point which is forced into the drawing board to hold the instrument
in position. A good pantograph will cost about two dollars; those of a
cheaper grade are entirely worthless for practical use, while a good
one will last a life time. A little experience will enable any one to
learn the use of the numbers.

To employ the instrument select the number on the bars corresponding to
the number of times the subject is to be enlarged, and connect the
adjustable ends of the bars so that they intersect at this number;
secure the pantograph to the drawing board at the left hand side; place
a piece of manilla paper at the other end of the board and secure it
with thumb tacks, taking care to smooth all the wrinkles out. Next
adjust the marking point in the centre of the paper; and secure the
photograph to the board so that its centre shall be directly under the
tracing point, which should always touch it. If it does not do so at
first, place a little weight on the instrument over this point heavy
enough to bring it in contact with the photograph. Now guide the
instrument, by taking hold of the tracing point while at the same time
you watch the marking point. In this manner go over the entire
photograph, putting in all the details necessary, after which you can
transfer this outline to the crayon paper by means of the tracing paper
according to the former method given for transferring an outline.

These are all the best methods of producing an outline. In each of them
you fasten the charcoal lines with the No. 2 crayon points, and then,
having brushed off the charcoal, proceed to put in the background for
your portrait. This you do by any one of the methods given in the
following pages.

Next: Four Methods Of Making The Background

Previous: The Metroscope

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