Examples In Bolts Nuts And Polygons
Let it be required to draw a machine screw, and it is not necessary, and therefore not usual in small screws to draw the full outline of the thread, but to represent it by thick and thin lines running diagonally across the bolt, as in Figure 149, the thick ones representing the bottom, and the thin ones the top of the thread. The pencil lines would be drawn in the order shown in Figure 150. Line 1 is the centre line, and line 2 a line to represent the lower side of the head; from the intersection of these two lines as a centre (as at A) short arcs 3 and 6, showing the diameter of the thread, are marked, and the arcs 5 and 6, representing the depth of the thread, are marked. The arc 7, representing the head, is then marked. The vertical lines 8, 9, 10, and 11 are then marked, and the outline of the screw is complete. The thick lines representing the bottom of the thread are next marked in, as in Figure 151, extending from line 9 to line 10. Midway between these lines fine ones are made for the tops of the thread. All the lines being pencilled in, they may be inked in with the drawing instruments, taking care that they do not overrun one another. When the pencil lines are rubbed out, the sketch will appear as in Figure 149.
For a bolt with a hexagon head the lines would be drawn in the order shown in Figure 152. At a right-angle to centre line 1, line two is drawn. The pencil-compasses are then set to half the diameter of the bolt, and from point A arcs 3 and 6 are pencilled, thus showing the width of the front flat of the head, as well as the diameter of the stem. From the point where these arcs meet line 2, and with the same radius, arcs 5 and 6 are marked, showing the widths of the other two flats of the head. The thickness of the head and the length of the bolt head may then be marked either by placing a rule on line 1 and marking the short lines (such as line 7) a cross line 1, or the pencil-compasses may be set to the rule and the lengths marked from point A. In the United States standard for bolt heads and nuts the thickness of the head is made equal to the diameter of the bolt. With the compasses set for the arcs 3 and 4, we may in two steps, from A along the centre line, mark off the thickness of the head without using the rule. But as the rule has to be applied along line 1 to mark line 7 for the length of the bolt, it is just as easy to mark the head thickness at the same time. The line 8 showing the length of the thread may be marked at the same time as the other lengths are marked, and the outlines 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 may be drawn in the order named. We have now to mark the arcs at the top of the flats of the head to show the chamfer, and to explain how these arcs are obtained we have in Figure 153 an enlarged view of the head. It is evident that the smallest diameter of the chamfer is represented by the circle A, and therefore the length of the line B must equal A. It is also evident that the outer edge of the chamfer will meet the corners at an equal depth (from the face of the nut), as represented by the line C C, and it is obvious that the curves that represent the outline of the chamfer on each side of the head or nut will approach the face of the head or nut at an equal distance, as denoted by the line D D. It follows that the curve must in each case be such as will, at each of its ends, meet the line C, and at its centre meet the line D D, the centres of the respective curves being marked in the figure by X.
It is sufficiently accurate, therefore, for all practical purposes to set the pencil on the centre-line at the point A in Figure 152 and mark the curve 14, and to then set the compasses by trial to mark the other two curves of the chamfer, so that they shall be an equal distance with arc 14 from line 9, and join lines 10 and 13 at the same distance from line 9 that 14 joins lines 3 and 4, so that as in Figure 153 all three of the arcs would touch a line as C, and another line as D.
The United States standard sizes for forged or unfinished bolts and nuts are given in the following table, Figure 154 showing the dimensions referred to in the table.
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