Section Lining Or Cross-hatching
When the interior of a piece is to be shown as a piece cut in half, or when a piece is broken away, as is done to make more of the parts show, or show more clearly, the surface so broken away or cut off is section-lined or cross-hatched; that is to say, diagonal lines are drawn across it, and to distinguish one piece from another these lines are drawn at varying angles and of varying widths apart. In Figure 87 is given a view of three cylindrical pieces. It may be known to be a sectional view by the cross-hatching or section lines. It would be a difficult matter to represent the three pieces put together without showing them in section, because, in an outline view, the collars and recesses would not appear. Each piece could of course be drawn separately, but this would not show how they were placed when put together. They could be shown in one view if they were shaded by lines and a piece shown broken out where the collars and, recesses are, but line shading is too tedious for detail drawings, beside involving too much labor in their production.
Figure 88 represents a case in which there are three cylindrical pieces one within the other, the two inner ones being fastened together by a screw which is shown dotted in in the end view, and whose position along the pieces is shown in the side view. The edges of the fracture in the outer piece are in this case cross-hatched, to show the line of fracture.
In cross-hatching it is better that the diagonal lines do not quite meet the edges of the piece, than that they should in the least overrun, as is shown in Figure 89, where in the top half the diagonals slightly overrun, while in the lower half they do not quite meet the outlines of the piece.
In Figure 90 are shown in section a number of pieces one within the other, the central bore being filled with short plugs. All the cross-hatching was done with the triangle of 60 degrees and that of 90 degrees. It is here shown that with these two triangles only, and a judicious arrangement of the diagonals, an almost infinite number of pieces may be shown in cross section without any liability of mistaking one for the other, or any doubt as to the form and arrangement of the pieces; for, beside the difference in spacing in the cross-hatching, there are no two adjoining pieces with the diagonals running in the same direction. It will be seen that the narrow pieces are most clearly defined by a close spacing of the cross-hatching.
In Figure 91 are shown three pieces put together and having slots or keyways through them. The outer shell is shown to be in one piece from end to end, because the cross-hatching is not only equally spaced, but the diagonals are in the same direction; hence it would be known that D, F, H, and E were slots or recesses through the piece. The same remarks apply to piece B, wherein G, J, K are recesses or slots. Piece C is shown to have in its bore a recess at L. In the case of B, as of A, there would be no question as to the piece being all one from end to end, notwithstanding that the two ends are completely severed where the slots G, I, come, because the spacing and direction of the cross-hatching are equal on each side of the slots, which they would not be if they were separate pieces.
Section shading or cross-hatching may sometimes cause the lines of the drawing to appear crooked to the eye. Thus, in Figure 92, the key edge on the right appears curved inwards, while on the left the key edge appears curved outwards, although such is not actually the case. The same effect is produced in Figure 93 on the right-hand edge of the key, but not on the left-hand edge.
A remarkable instance of this kind is shown in Figure 94, when the vertical lines appear to the eye to be at a considerable angle one to the other, although they are parallel.
The lines in sectional shading or cross-hatching may be made to denote the material of which the piece is to be composed. Thus Professor Unwin has proposed the system shown in the Figures 95 and 96. This may be of service in some cases, but it would involve very much more labor than it is worth in ordinary machine shop drawings, except in the case of cast iron and wood, these two being shown in the simplest and the usual manner. It is much better to write the name of the material beneath the piece in a detail drawing.
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