The Pantograph





This instrument for enlarging or reducing a picture was invented about

the year 1603. It consists of four metallic or wooden bars or rules,

which are perforated by a series of holes (numbered from 1 to 20), and

connected together by means of an adjustable thumb screw. The

instrument is provided with a tracing and a marking point, and a screw

or point which is forced into the drawing board to hold the instrument

in position. A good pantograph will cost about two dollars; those of a

cheaper grade are entirely worthless for practical use, while a good

one will last a life time. A little experience will enable any one to

learn the use of the numbers.



To employ the instrument select the number on the bars corresponding to

the number of times the subject is to be enlarged, and connect the

adjustable ends of the bars so that they intersect at this number;

secure the pantograph to the drawing board at the left hand side; place

a piece of manilla paper at the other end of the board and secure it

with thumb tacks, taking care to smooth all the wrinkles out. Next

adjust the marking point in the centre of the paper; and secure the

photograph to the board so that its centre shall be directly under the

tracing point, which should always touch it. If it does not do so at

first, place a little weight on the instrument over this point heavy

enough to bring it in contact with the photograph. Now guide the

instrument, by taking hold of the tracing point while at the same time

you watch the marking point. In this manner go over the entire

photograph, putting in all the details necessary, after which you can

transfer this outline to the crayon paper by means of the tracing paper

according to the former method given for transferring an outline.



These are all the best methods of producing an outline. In each of them

you fasten the charcoal lines with the No. 2 crayon points, and then,

having brushed off the charcoal, proceed to put in the background for

your portrait. This you do by any one of the methods given in the

following pages.





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