# Screw Threads And Spirals Fig. 202. Fig. 203.

The screw thread for small bolts is represented by thick and thin lines, such as was shown in Figure 152, but in larger sizes; the angles of the thread also are drawn in, as in Figure 202, and the method of doing this is shown in Figure 203. The centre line 1 and lines 2 and

for the full diameter of the thread being drawn, set the compasses to the required pitch of the thread, and stepping along line 2, mark the arcs 4, 5, 6, etc., for the full length the thread is to be marked. With the triangle resting against the T-square, the lines 7, 8, 9, etc. (for the full length of the thread), are drawn from the points 4, 5, 6, on line 2. These give one side of the thread. Reversing the drawing triangle, angles 10, 11, etc., are then drawn, which will complete the outline of the thread at the top of the bolt. We may now mark the depth of the thread by drawing line 12, and with the compasses set on the centre line transfer this depth to the other side of the bolt, as denoted by the arcs 13 and 14. Touching arc 14 we mark line 15 for the thread depth on that side. We have now to get the slant of the thread across the bolt. It is obvious that in passing once around the bolt the thread advances to the amount of the pitch as from a to b; hence, in passing half way around, it will advance from a to c; we therefore draw line 16 at a right-angle to the centre line, and a line that touches the top of the threads at a, where it meets line 2, and also meets line 16, where it touches line 3, is the angle or slope for the tops of the threads, which may be drawn across by lines, as 18, 19, 20, etc. From these lines the sides of the thread may be drawn at the bottom of the bolt, marking first the angle on one side, as by lines 21, 22, 23, etc., and then the angles on the other, as by lines 24, 25, etc. Fig. 204.

There now remain the bottoms of the thread to draw, and this is done by drawing lines from the bottom of the thread on one side of the bolt to the bottom on the other, as shown in the cut by a dotted line; hence, we may set a square blade to that angle, and mark in these lines, as 26, 27, 28, etc., and the thread is pencilled in complete.

If the student will follow out this example upon paper, it will appear to him that after the thread had been marked out on one side of the bolt, the angle of the thread might be obtained, as shown by lines 16 and 17, and that the bottoms of the thread as well as the tops might be carried across the bolt to the other side. Figure 204 represents a case in which this has been done, and it will be observed that the lines denoting the bottom of the thread do not meet the bottoms of the thread, which occurs for the reason that the angle for the bottom is not the same as that for the top of the thread. Fig. 205. Fig. 206.

In inking in the thread, it enhances the appearance to give the bottom of the thread and the right-hand side of the same, heavy shade lines, as in Figure 202, a plan that is usually adopted for threads of large diameter and coarse pitch.

A double thread, such as in Figure 205, is drawn in the same way, except that the slant of the thread is doubled, and the square is to be set for the thread-pitch A, A, both for the tops and bottoms of the thread. Fig 207.

A round top and bottom thread, as the Whitworth thread, is drawn by single lines, as in Figure 206. A left-hand thread, Figure 207, is obviously drawn by the same process as a right-hand one, except that the slant of the thread is given in the opposite direction.

For screw threads of a large diameter it is not uncommon to draw in the thread curves as they appear to the eye, and the method of doing this is shown in Figure 208. The thread is first marked on both sides of the bolt, as explained, and instead of drawing, straight across the bolt, lines to represent the tops and bottoms of the thread, a template to draw the curves by is required. To get these curves, two half-circles, one equal in diameter to the top, and one equal to the bottom of the thread, are drawn, as in Figure 208. Fig. 208.

These half-circles are divided into any convenient number of equal divisions: thus in Figure 208, each has eight divisions, as a, b, c, etc., for the outer, and i, j, k, etc., for the inner one. The pitch of the thread is then divided off by vertical lines into as many equal divisions as the half-circles are divided into, as by the lines a, b, c, etc., to o. Of these, the seven from a, to h, correspond to the seven from a' to g', and are for the top of the thread, and the seven from i to o correspond to the seven on the inner half-circle, as i, j, k, etc. Horizontal lines are then drawn from the points of the division to meet the vertical lines of division; thus the horizontal dotted line from a' meets the vertical line a, and where they meet, as at A, a dot is made. Where the dotted line from b' meets vertical line b, another dot is made, as at B, and so on until the point G is found. A curve drawn to pass from the top of the thread on one side of the bolt to the top of the other side, and passing through these points, as from A to G, will be the curve for the top of the thread, and from this curve a template may be made to mark all the other thread-tops from, because manifestly all the tops of the thread on the bolt will be alike.

For the bottoms of the thread, lines are similarly drawn, as from i' to meet i, where dot I is marked. J is got from j' and j, while K is got from the intersection of k' with k, and so on, the dots from I to O being those through which a curve is drawn for the bottom of the thread, and from this curve a template also may be made to mark all the thread bottoms. We have in our example used eight points of division in each half-circle, but either more or less points maybe used, the only requisite being that the pitch of the thread must be divided into as many divisions as the two half-circles are. But it is not absolutely necessary that both half-circles be divided into the same number of equal divisions. Thus, suppose the large half-circle were divided into ten divisions, then instead of the first half of the pitch being divided into eight (as from a to h) it would require to have ten lines. But the inner half-circle may have eight only, as in our example. It is more convenient, however, to use the same number of divisions for both circles, so that they may both be divided together by lines radiating from the centre. The more the points of division, the greater number of points to draw the curves through; hence it is desirable to have as many as possible, which is governed by the pitch of the thread, it being obvious that the finer the pitch the less the number of distinct and clear divisions it is practicable to divide it into. In our example the angles of the thread are spread out to cause these lines to be thrown further apart than they would be in a bolt of that diameter; hence it will be seen that in threads of but two or three inches in diameter the lines would fall very close together, and would require to be drawn finely and with care to keep them distinct. Fig. 208 a. Fig. 209. Fig. 210.

To draw a square thread the pencil lines are marked in the order shown in Figure 210, in which 1 represents the centre line and 2, 3, 4 and 5, the diameter and depth of the thread. The pitch of the thread is marked off by arcs, as 6, 7, etc., or by laying a rule directly on the centre line and marking with a lead pencil. To obtain the slant of the thread, lines 8 and 9 are drawn, and from these line 10, touching 8 and 9 where they meet lines 2 and 5; the threads may then be drawn in from the arcs as 6, 7, etc. The side of the thread will show at the top and the bottom as at A B, because of the coarse pitch and the thread on the other or unseen side of the bolt slants, as denoted by the lines 12, 13; and hence to draw the sides A B, the triangle must be set from one thread to the next on the opposite side of the bolt, as denoted by the dotted lines 12 and 13. Fig. 211.

If the curves of the thread are to be drawn in, they may be obtained as in Figure 211, which is substantially the same as described for a V thread. The curves f, representing the sides of the thread, terminate at the centre line g, and the curves e are equidistant with the curves c from the vertical lines d. As the curves f above the line are the same as f below the line, the template for f need not be made to extend the whole distance across, but one-half only; as is shown by the dotted curve g, in the construction for finding the curve for square-threaded nuts in Figure 212. Fig. 212. Fig. 213.

A specimen of the form of template for drawing these curves is shown in Figure 213; g g, is the centre line parallel to the edges R, S; lines m, n, represent the diameter of the thread at the top, and o, p, that at the bottom or root; edge a is formed to the points (found by the constructions in the figures as already explained) for the tops of the thread, and edge f is so formed for the curve at the thread bottoms. The edge, as S or R, is laid against the square-blade to steady it while drawing in the curves. It may be noted, however, that since the curve is the same below the centre line as it is above, the template may be made to serve for one-half the thread diameter, as at f, where it is made from o to g, only being turned upside down to draw the other half of the curve; the notches cut out at x, x, are merely to let the pencil-lines in the drawing show plainly when setting the template.

When the thread of a nut is shown in section, it slants in the opposite direction to that which appears on the bolt-thread, because it shows the thread that fits to the opposite side of the bolt, which, therefore, slants in the opposite direction, as shown by the lines 12 and 13 in Figure 210.

In a top or end view of a nut the thread depth is usually shown by a simple circle, as in Figure 214. Fig. 214.

To draw a spiral spring, draw the centre line A, and lines B, C, Figure 215, distant apart the diameter the spring is to be less the diameter of the wire of which it is to be made. On the centre line A mark two lines a b, c d, representing the pitch of the spring. Divide the distance between a and b into four equal divisions, as by lines 1, 2, 3, letting line 3 meet line B. Line e meeting the centre line at line a, and the line B at its intersection with line 3, is the angle of the coil on one side of the spring; hence it may be marked in at all the locations, as at e f, etc. These lines give at their intersections with the lines C and B the centres for the half circles g, which being drawn, the sides h, i, j, k, etc., of the spring, may all be marked in. By the lines m, n, o, p, the other sides of the spring may be marked in. Fig. 215.

The end of the spring is usually marked straight across, as at L. If it is required to draw the coils curved instead of straight across, a template must be made, the curve being obtained as already described for threads. It may be pointed out, however, that to obtain as accurate a division as possible of the lines that divide the pitch, the pitch may be divided upon a diagonal line, as F, Figure 216, which will greatly facilitate the operation. Fig. 216.

Before going into projections it may be as well to give some examples for practice.

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