# The Different Views Of A Mechanical Drawing

The word elevation, as applied to mechanical drawing, means simply a view; hence a side elevation is a side view, or an end elevation is an end view.

The word plan is employed in place of the word top; hence a plan view is a top view, or a view looking down upon the top of the piece.

A general view means a view showing the machine put together or assembled, while a detail drawing is one containing a detail, as a part of

he machine or a single piece disconnected from the other parts of the whole machine.

It is obviously desirable in a mechanical drawing to present the piece of work in as few views as possible, but in all cases there must be a sufficient number to permit of the dimensions in every necessary direction to be marked on the drawing. Suppose, then, that in Figure 120 we have to represent a solid cylinder, whose length equals its diameter, and it is obvious that both the diameter and length may be marked in the one view given; hence, a second view, such as shown by the circle in Figure 121, is unnecessary, except it be to distinguish the body from a cube, in which the one view would also be sufficient whereon to mark all the dimensions necessary to enable the piece to be made. It happens, however, that a cube and a cylinder are the only two figures upon which all the dimensions can be marked on one view of the piece, and as cylindrical pieces are much more common in machine work than cubes are, it is taken for granted that, where the pieces are cylindrical, but one view shall be used, and that where they are cubes either two views shall be given, or where they are square a cross shall be marked upon the parts that are square; thus, in Figure 122, is shown a cross formed by the lines A B across the face of the drawing, which saves making a second view.

Fig. 120.

Fig. 121.

Fig. 122.

Fig. 123.

It would appear that under some conditions this might lead to error; as, for example, take the piece in Figure 123, and there is nothing to denote which is the length and which is the diameter of the piece, but there is a certain amount of custom in such cases than will usually determine this point; thus, the piece will be given a name, as pin or disk, the one denoting that its diameter is less than its length, and the other that its diameter is greater than its length. In the absence of any such name, it would be in practice assumed that it was a pin and not a disk; because, if it were a disk, it would either be named or shaded, or a second view given to show its unusual form, the disk being a more unusual form than the pin-form in mechanical structures. As an example of the use of the cross to denote a square, we have Figure 124, which represents a piece having a hexagon head, section a, a', that is rectangular, a collar b, a square part c, and a round stem d. Here it will be noted that it is the rectangular part a, a', that renders necessary two views, and that in the absence of the cross, yet another view would be necessary to show that part c is square.

Fig. 124.

Fig. 125.

Fig. 126.

A rectangular piece always requires two views and sometimes three. In Figure 125, for example, is a piece that would require a side view to show the length and breadth, and an edge view to show the thickness. Suppose the piece to be wedge-shaped in any direction; then another view will be necessary, as is shown in Figs. 126 and 127. In the former the wedge or taper is in the direction of its length, while in the latter it is in the direction of its thickness. Outline views, however, will not in some cases show the form of the figure, however many views be presented. An example of this is given in Figure 128, which represents a ring having a hexagon cross section. A sectional edge view is here necessary in order to show the hexagonal form. Another example of this kind, which occurs more frequently in practice, is a cupped ring such as shown in Figure 129.

Fig. 127.

Fig. 128.

Fig. 129.

Fig. 130.

EXAMPLES.

Let it be required to draw a rectangular piece such as is shown in two views in Figure 130, and the process for the pencil lines is as follows:

Fig. 131.

With the bow-pencil set to half the required length and breadth of the square the arcs 1, 2, 3 and 4, in Figure 131, are marked, and then the lines 5 and 6, letting them run past the width of the arcs 3 and 4. There is no need to pencil in lines 7 and 8, since they can be inked in without pencilling, because it is known that they must meet the arcs 3 and 4 and terminate at the lines 5 and 6. The top and bottom lines of the edge view are merely prolongations of lines 5 and 6; hence the lines 9 and 10 are drawn the requisite distance apart for the thickness and to meet the top and bottom lines. The lines are then inked in, the pencil lines rubbed out, and the drawing will appear as in Figure 130.

Fig. 132.

Fig. 133.

Suppose, however, that the piece has a step in it, as in Figure 132, and the pencilling will be as in Figure 133. From the centre, the arcs 1, 2, 3 and 4 for the outer, and arcs 5, 6, 7 and 8 for the inner square are marked; lines 9 and 10, and their prolongations, 11 and 12, for the edge view, are then pencilled; lines 13 and 14, and their prolongations, 15 and 16, are then pencilled, and dots to show the locations for lines 21 and 22 maybe marked and the pencilling is complete. Lines 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, and 23 may then be inked in, in the order named, and then lines 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16, when the inking in will be complete.

Fig. 134.

In inking in horizontal lines begin at the top and mark in each line as the square comes to it; and in inking the vertical ones begin always at the left hand line and mark the lines as they are come to, moving the square or the triangle to the right, and great care should be taken not to let the lines cross where they meet, as at the corners, since this would greatly impair the appearance of the drawing.

These figures have been drawn without the aid of a centre line, because from their shapes it was easy to dispense with it, but in most cases a centre line is necessary; thus in Figure 134 we have a body having a number of steps. The diameters of these steps are marked by arcs, as in the previous examples, and their lengths may be marked by applying the measuring rule direct to the drawing paper and making the necessary pencil mark.

But it would be tedious to mark the successive steps true one with the other by measuring each step, because one step would require to be pencilled in before the next could be marked. To avoid this the centre line 1, Figure 134, is first marked, and the arcs for the steps are then marked as shown. Centre lines are also necessary to show the alignment of one part to another; thus in Figure 135 is a cube with a hole passing through it. The dotted lines in the side view show that the hole passes clear through the piece and is a parallel one, while the centre line, being central to the outline throughout the piece, shows that the hole is equidistant, all through, from the walls of the piece.

Fig. 135.

Fig. 136.

The pencil lines for this piece would be marked as in Figure 136, line 1 representing the centre line from which all the arcs are marked. It will be noted that the length of the piece is marked by arcs which occur, because being a cube the set of the compasses for arcs 2, 3, 4 and 5 will answer without altering to mark arcs 6 and 7.

Fig. 137.

If the hole in the piece were a taper or conical one, it would be denoted by the dotted lines, as in Figure 137, and that the taper is central to the body is shown by these dotted lines being equidistant from the centre line.

Fig. 138.

Suppose one of the sides to be tapered, as is the side A, in Figure 138, and that the hole is not central, and both facts will be shown by the centre lines 1 and 2 in the figure. The measurement of face A would be marked from A to line B at each end, but the distance the hole was out of the centre would be marked by the distance between the centre line 2 and the edge C of the piece.

Fig. 139.

If the hole did not pass entirely through the piece, the dotted lines would show it, as in Figure 139.

Fig. 140.

Fig. 141.

The designations of the views of a piece of work depend upon the position in which the piece stands, when in place upon the machine of which it forms a part. Thus in Figure 140 is a lever, and if its shaft stood horizontal when the piece is in place in the machine, the view given is an end one, but suppose that the shaft stood vertical, and the same view becomes a plan or top view.

Fig. 142.

Fig. 143.

In Figure 142 is a view of a lever which is a side view if the lever stands horizontal, and lever B hangs down, or a plan view if the shaft stands horizontal, but lever B stands also horizontal. We may take the same drawing and turn it around on the paper as in Figure 143, and it becomes a side view if the shaft stands vertical, and a plan view if the shaft stands horizontal and arm D vertical above it.

In a side or an end view, the piece that projects highest in the drawing is highest when upon the machine; also in a side elevation the piece that is at the highest point in the drawing extends farthest upward when the piece is on the machine. But in a plan or top view the height of vertical pieces is not shown, as appears in the case of arm D in Figure 143.

Fig. 144.

In either of the levers, Figures 142 or 143, all the dimensions could be marked if an additional view were given, but this will not be the case if an eye have a slot in it, as at E, in Figure 144, or a jaw have a tongue in it, as at F: hence, end views of the eye and the jaw must be given, which may be most conveniently done by showing them projected from the ends of those parts as in the figure.

This naturally brings us to a consideration as to the best method of projecting one view from another. As a general rule, the side elevation or side view is the most important, because it shows more of the parts and details of the work; hence it should be drawn first, because it affords more assistance in drawing the other views.

Fig. 145.

There are two systems of placing the different views of a piece. In the first the views are presented as the piece would present itself if it were laid upon the paper for the side view, and then turned or rolled upon the paper for the other views, as shown in Figure 145, in which the piece consists of five sections or members, marked respectively A, B, C, D, and E. Now if the piece were turned or rolled so that the end face of B were uppermost, and the member E was beneath, it will, by the operation of turning it, have assumed the position in the lower view marked position 2; while if it were turned over upon the paper in the opposite direction it would assume the position marked 3. This gives to the mind a clear idea of the various views and positions; but it possesses some disadvantages: thus, if position 1 is a side elevation or view of the piece, as it stands when in place of the machine, then E is naturally the bottom member; but it is shown in the top view of the drawing, hence what is actually the bottom view of the piece (position 3) becomes the top view in the drawing. A second disadvantage is that if we desire to put in dotted lines, to show how one view is derived from the other, and denote corresponding parts, then these dotted lines must be drawn across the face of the drawing, making it less distinct; thus the dotted lines connecting stem E in position 1 to E in position 3, pass across the faces of both A and B of position 1.

Fig. 146.

In a large drawing, or one composed of many members or parts, it would, therefore, be out of the question to mark in the dotted lines. A further disadvantage in a large drawing is that it is necessary to go from one side of the drawing to the other to see the construction of the same part.

Fig. 147.

To obviate these difficulties, a modern method is to suppose the piece, instead of rolling upon the paper, to be lifted from it, turned around to present the required view, and then moved upwards on the paper for a top view, sideways for a side view, and below for a bottom view. Thus the three views of the piece in Figure 145 would be as in Figure 146, where position 2 is obtained by supposing the piece to be lifted from position 1, the bottom face turned uppermost, and the piece moved down the paper to position 2, which is a bottom view of the piece, and the bottom view in the drawing. Similarly, if the piece be lifted from position 1, and the top face in that figure is turned uppermost, and the piece is then slid upwards on the paper, view 3 is obtained, being a top view of the piece as it lies in position 1, and the top view in the drawing. Now suppose we require to find the shape of member B, then in Figure 145 we require to look at the top of position 1, and then down below to position 2.

Fig. 148.

But in Figure 146 we have the side view and end view both together, while the dotted lines do not require to cross the face of the side view. Now suppose we take a similar piece, and suppose its end faces, as F, G, to have holes in them, which require to be shown in both views, and under the one system the drawing would, if the dotted lines were drawn across, appear as in Figure 147, whereas under the other system the drawing would appear as in Figure 148. And it follows that in cases where it is necessary to draw dotted lines from one view to the other, it is best to adopt the new system.

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