Stipple Effect

On a photographic enlargement or a free-hand crayon after

the outline and masses of light and shade have been made

with the tortillon stump, as explained on page 55.

When putting in a background with the pumice stone as described in the

fourth method on page 70, treat the whole surface of the paper with

pumice stone in order to raise the grain of the paper, but go over the

face lig
tly. Then place the strainer on which the portrait is mounted

on the easel, and put in the shadows with the tortillon stump,

producing the lights with the eraser; finish with the No. 0 crayon. But

instead of producing a diamond effect, as you did with the lines, you

now want to have a stipple effect, which is that of small black and

white spots; the paper producing the white spots, and the crayon the

black ones. To produce this make the lines in the shadows and

half-shadows, but not in the light places, in the manner shown in the

illustration on the following page; instead of crossing them to form

diamonds, using short lines and varying their direction and

intersection with reference to the ultimate effect; then rub them with

the end of the finger. In finishing, gradually divide up all the small

light parts with the pencil and the dark with the eraser: if it is

necessary at any time to rub the crayon, use the end of the finger

instead of the cotton. Be careful not to get too much crayon on the

paper, that is, you must not "force up" or be compelled to make the

shadows too dark by the use of the crayon; they should be made as dark

as necessary with the stump before finishing. Should you find in

finishing that they are not dark enough, use the stump to make them

darker, as the pencil is only intended to give the stipple effect, and

should be used in a very light and delicate way. Continue the process

of finishing according to the directions hereafter given for bromide

enlargements. The foregoing illustration is the first or ground work

for the stipple effect produced by the aid of the fingers. To obtain

this effect without rubbing with the fingers, make small black dots,

instead of the lines shown above, until the desired effect is produced.

The latter method results in a coarser stipple effect, but it requires

a much longer time and is more difficult than the former.