Third Method Of Making The Background Line Effect

With the cotton and crayon sauce as in the preceding method, put in the

dark places and cast shadow, but not as dark as you want them when

finished; then with the crayon point No. 2 put in three sets of lines


Do not carry out the lines as far as the background will extend when

finished. The lines should be one-quarter of an inch apart in life-size

portraits, and a little closer in smaller sizes. A
a rule the lines

are a little further apart in the background than in the face. These

lines need not be horizontal, crossed by oblique ones at obtuse angles,

but they can be curved lines, if desired, provided they cross each

other so as to leave diamond shaped spaces. After the lines are in rub

a piece of clean cotton over them all, using pressure enough to subdue

them to the degree of indistinctness desired; then finish with the

large eraser and crayon point No. 2, putting in the cloud effect. Such

lines as show too prominently you subdue with the nigrivorine eraser.

If there are any light places, make them dark with the crayon.

The background should be very indistinct on the edges, and be vignetted

in the shape of an oblong, having some very light clouds above and on

either side of the head. Let there be a nice contrast between the face

and the background, having light come against dark and dark against

light; that is, when one side of the face is dark and one side light,

have the background light against the dark side, and dark against the

light side; when light and shade are about equal on both sides of the

face, have the background about the same shade on both sides, without

too decided a cast shadow. If you have a subject that has gray hair,

have the background darker than it would be otherwise. The background

should never be darker at any place than the shadows in the face, and

close to the face it must be a shade between the light and half

shadows. Never resort to the practice of leaving the background white,

as this will only give a hard, stiff appearance. Clean off the outside

edges of the background with a clean piece of cotton and the pumice